The Official History of the Sound Gallery, Motion Studio, the Trips Festival and the founding of Intermedia.

Motion Studio and the Trips Festival, 1966
Intermedia 1967--1973

In the fall of 1965, I was an aspiring 18 yr. old jazz drummer, who was also a fledgling painter and art student. Having come from a family where my mother, Ferne Cairns, was a concert soprano and my father, Douglas Simpson, a pioneering west coast Modernist architect, my fate was sealed to either choose between the two mediums of music and painting, or somehow juggle both of them at the same time. To me this was something akin to choosing between  breathing and eating so I decided to try to progress in both mediums. To that end I rented a small (30’ x 60’) storefront at West 4th Avenue and Bayswater in Vancouver's Kitsilano area.

Sound Gallery, the store front at 4th and Bayswater.

   Earlier in the year I had made the acquaintance of jazz pianist Al Neil who I had seen play live twice in Vancouver jazz venues and once on CBC television from the Cellar, a legendary
  club which among other claims to fame had
been the place that gave the ground breaking Ornette Coleman Quartet their first concert  outside of the U.S. in 1958. It had also featured
  through the 50's and 60's the groups of Charles Mingus, Art Pepper, Harold Land
and many more west coast hard bop bands of that caliber. Al Neil was usually the house pianist for
  these visiting greats.

Al Neil at the Cellar in the late 1950's

        Significantly the Cellar was also where future Intermedia Director, Barry Cramer, produced plays such as Krapp's Last Tape and other works by the writers of the Theatre of the Absurd. Vancouver, it seems,
        has always had a tendency
to investigate a mixed media approach to the arts and this has been evident through several decades since Al Neil recorded with the beat poet, Kenneth Patchen, on the Folkways
         label producing a very well received album.

Kenneth Patchen Reads Poetry In Canada
(With the Alan Neil Quartet).

        In 1965, after an initial introduction to Neil  and his wife at the time, Marguerite, in their small cottage wedged behind some highrise apartments in the West End, a life long relationship
        began. I was brought to meet Al Neil by one of Vancouver's
other legendary figures of the beat era, Curt Lang, a poet and painter who had once been taken by fellow poet the late
        Al Purdy to meet Malcolm Lowry at his Dollarton Beach house on the North Shore, not far from the spot
where Neil himself landed a decade or more later. (This has been well documented in the
        recent book,  At the World's Edge,
Curt Lang's Vancouver, 1937-1998 by Claudia Cornwall).

Marguerite Neil in concert with the Al Neil Trio
at the Intermedia Dome Show, 1970
(photo by Michael de Courcy)

        There was an immediate current of excitement as I realized that after abandoning any regular career choices I  might indeed be on the threshold of a unique musical enterprise with Al
        and  bassist Richard Anstey, who I had
been playing with in groups such as the New Dimension Jazz Trio and with Bob Buckley was also playing with Al's group at the Flat Five Jazz
        Club on West Broadway.

        Our first musical strategy  session was an eye opener.  Al was pretty loaded the night he hauled out his little electric Wurlizter piano with its fragile reeds,  half of  which he managed to break
       while slipping from the piano
stool to the floor at least three times. The 'score'  for the music he was about to played me consisted of chopped up music paper collaged together with
        fragments from popular magazines, including some 'girlie' pictures.
Al was playing a kind of tortured, mystical and lyrical music I could only describe as a cross between Bud Powell,
        Charles Ives and Debussy. I know, however, that Al hadn’t yet heard the work of a musician he superficially resembles, the tumultuous New York pianist, Cecil Taylor, whose music was
        just beginning to be known in Vancouver in 1965.
But at that time, Al had already came up with his own lyrical, yet cataclysmic, style completely on his own.

        Although an authentic hard bop musician,  Neil worked in so many other influences from pioneer Dadaists like Kurt Schwitters, painters like Bradley Tomlin and Mark Tobey to the cut-up
        writings of William S. Burroughs,
works on alchemy and mysticism, and the fevered visions of the French surrealist, Antonin Artaud, that a multi-media kind of jazz was bound to occur from
         the collaboration we were embarking on. on.

        For the first two rehersals the Al Neil Trio was actually a quartet with the presence of altoist Bob Buckley who later  went on to fame and fortune with the rock band Spring and later as a
         producer.  For some reason or other
the trio of Al on piano, Richard Anstey on bass and myself on drums was what emerged and by late fall we were rehearsing regularly at the little store
        front which eventually opened as the Sound Gallery.

        Because I also need somewhere better to paint than the family home,  the studio at 4th and Bayswater  became a multi-media operation from the beginning. First I drew from the model there
        and continued working on a series
of abstract oil paintings which reflected the influence of late Modernist geometric painting.  The place was unheated and several little electric space heaters
        were employed to keep things bearable as winter approached.

Manifestations of Calm
Gregg Simpson: oil on canvas, 1965
 (a work installed in the Sound Gallery)

         As the little circle of friends who came to the studio expanded there was a movement started to have sessions and everyone chipped in on the rent to keep the place going. Fledgling poet
        Michael Coutts was a regular, although
, he like many others who participated in the period, didn't survive the 60's . Richard Anstey, who lived in the area of  the studio also brought in other
        neighborhood buddies like drummer Harley McConnell, who helped me put
  together a drum kit for the great drummer, Philly Joe Jones  then blowing the roof off with Harold Land over
        at the Blue Horn, formerly the Flat Five.  To this day I credit my contact with Philly Joe as the major influence which formed my playing
style although with the Al Neil Trio waiting in the
        wings this was one of the last times I played bebop jazz until a
decade or so later.

        The first recording session at the studio as it was still referred to was on December 15th, 1965 and the Al Neil Trio  played several improvised pieces for a small audience. The music was
        nothing short of extraordinary,
combing snippits of melodies like Summertime, or a blues, which appeared through waves of arpeggios, polychromatic chord clusters, whirling dervish modal
        lines and atonal passages.  We were still playing jazz we all thought, especially
in Anstey and my case as we were both very recently influenced by the work of the John Coltrane Quartet and
        of Charles Mingus. who we had seen live together at the Blue Horn.  Al liked to perplex other musicians when they asked what all this stuff was and he would say, “ I like to think I'm
        still playing jazz”!    
Al Neil playing zither and piano
(photo by Michael deCourcy)

          Our last gig there was with Don Thompson and P.J. Perry both ex-associates of Neil from the Cellar days. Al came down to hear us but didn't sit in. I think the other musicians knew we
          were up to something different though.
In fact a year or two later when Al played some of the trio tapes for bassist/ pianist Don Thompson, now a Canadian jazz icon, asked him,
         "Al, how do you get those guys to play that way ?"

        This was no easy  thing to explain.  The Trio had a unique empathy for  improvisation not unlike a group like the Bill Evans Trio.  Although much more frenzied,  it did have some of the
        interwoven,  independent melodic lines
of the Evans group . But that was when something like a tune or song form was involved. What was unique to this group was the way it could move
        into non-verbal chanting, collaged textures utilizing toy instruments, tapes, records
or radios and still keep the feel of a jazz trio. Noise music mixed with political protest  was employed on
        one of a
kind pieces like State of the Union where a radio speech by then President Johnson on Viet Nam was smothered in clattering textures and insane shrieking, all recorded in a totally
        darkened Sound Gallery. It was a long way from

        By March, 1966 after a month long hiatus from Al, Richard Anstey and myself returned from playing an engagement at a Banff hotel and we were back at the old studio and ready to take
        things up a notch. During the
winter I had thought of the name Sound Gallery for the space and as it seemed to be a hit with everyone, we designated it as such for a series of weekend
        concerts which began in March. Advertising was a large piece of construction paper
hung in the window with stenciled letters advertising:  Al Neil and his Royal Rascals represented
        by some
campy collage elements. Admission was by donation as we had been told we could avoid hassles with the authorities that way. For a later concert at the Kit's Theatre the group
        became the Royal Canadians. Also around that time we started
to invite others into the evening concerts.

       The first new participant to arrive at the Sound Gallery was composer Gerry Walker , a new music composer who worked with tape and prepared piano in the era before synthesizers.
        He shared a studio four blocks down
4th Ave.with film maker Sam Perry who was to become the guru for multi-media presentation in the next year, the last of his life. The atmosphere in
        their studio was a little like a laboratory  in a 50's sci-fi movie. It was a
perfect complement to our operation down the street and a collaboration seemed inevitable and natural.

        Almost immediately the Saturday night concerts at the Sound Gallery became a place for poets, artists and dancers to collaborate. Among those who appeared were  painter
        Gary Lee Nova who had just shown
a remarkable set of hexagon shaped paintings at the UBC Fine Arts Gallery and would go on to collaborate with Perry on the making of imagery for
        the light shows, a name that wasn't being used yet in Vancouver.

Gary Lee Nova: Dreadnaught
acrylic on canvas, 1966

        Soon after we were joined by dancer/choreographer Helen Goodwin who had recently worked with New York-based Jean Erdman, a pioneer performance/ dance artist. The Sound
        Gallery cast was assembling and
it included the Al Neil Trio's music, Sam Perry's films and projections, the Helen Goodwin dancers, composer, Gerry Walker and often a poet.

        Poetry was an important medium in the 1960's and readings were given regularly at the Sound Gallery.  One notable one was by Milton Acorn which was a raucous affair as always with
        the crusty writer.  Also in
attendance were bill bissett, Gerry Gilbert and  Judith Copithorne, the latter also one of Goodwin's dancers. One memorable solo piece, involved Copithorne
        improvising a dance which evoked flying to one of the Trio's
melancholic ballads, with Perry's projected film of an actual flying bird playing over her. It was one of the best pieces in the
        collective repetoire. Copithorne stayed with Goodwin for a number of years through the Intermedia
period, but later preferred to work solely as a poet, producing several books of verse
        and visual poetry done in a beautifuly fluid calligraphy. her credit.  Two others in Goodwin's
company also became noted perfomers later, Karen Jameison and Evelyn Roth. In addition
        she employed
other modern dancers, such as Heather MacCallum, Rita Watson and Joan Payne.

         The spawning ground for  both Helen Goodwin, and most of the poets, was the University of British Columbia where the remarkable English professor, Warren Tallman, a friend of both
         Allen Ginsberg and Charles Mingus
among others, taught during the 1960's and 1970's. The group of poets who published the periodical TISH  including Jamie Reid, Peter Auxier,
        Maxine Gadd
, Dan MacLeod and later, Jim Brown, all participated
in the earliest days of multi-media in Vancouver. The poetry scene was the most advanced and communicative of
         any of the groups in Vancouver then.

        The University of British Columbia during the 1960s was a revolutionary cauldron of poetry, left wing politics and ground-breaking art exhibitions and festivals. The Fine Arts Gallery,
        under the direction of  Alvin Balkind
who formerly ran the New Design Gallery downtown, the first to show Claude Breeze, Audrey Capel Doray, Joy Long, Toni Onley and
        Jack Wise
to a wider audience. The dynamic survey exhibition, Joy and Celebration
at The Fine Arts Gallery in 1967 brought together several artists who would later work at Intermedia.

        The 1965 Armory Show and the1967 Festival of Contemporary Arts were two other important events which brought together artists, poets and musicians from B.C. and across
        Canada including such luminaries as Leonard
Cohen and Margaret Atwood. The experimental media experimenter and puppeteer Dave Orcutt was one of the  figures who emerged
        from this milieu and was to be an early instigator of the Intermedia Society.

        The events at the Sound Gallery were getting increasingly popular and by June we realized that a larger space was going to be necessary. The crowds in the 30' by 60' store front were
        making it increasingly difficult to fit in
  an audience with the band, dancers and projectionists Perry, Lee Nova and another artist of the period, Dallas Selman, who, along with audio/electronic
        innovator, Ken Ryan, worked at Sam Perry's 4th Avenue studio. The problem was solved
when Helen Goodwin's husband, a local realtor, came up with a reasonably cheap old building
1236 Seymour Street on the edge of Vancouver's downtown.



TheCo Dancers at Motion Studio, 1966
(Photos by Jack Dale)

         The  ramshackle office/warehouse which was the new home of the Sound Gallery operation was now called  Motion Studio, the name reflecting an increased effort on Goodwin's
        part to create a more effective dance
environment in collaboration with Sam Perry's light show.  The name chosen for this collaboration, WECO, was a tribute to the multi-media collective
        in New York, USCO, whose founder, Steve Dirkey, was a very
influential on Perry.  The dance troupe eventually became known as TheCo.
        Sam Perry
was a figure who was both inspiring and perplexing,  His pioneering film and projection work was
ahead of its time with its multiple layered imagery drawn largely from from
        Tibetan Buddhist sources. Perry,
like the painter Jack Wise, had been to Nepal and met the Dalai Lama. Originally working in 16mm film, Perry progressed to creating montages of film
        loops  which were augmented for performances with magic lantern,
slide carousel, and overhead liquid projectors, anticipating the subsequent development of rock era light shows.

         During this period the underground rock scene had been developing rapidly giving the WECO projectionists several gigs accompanying the rock bands at the Afterthought, a club
        located in the old Pender Auditorium
where groups like the United Empire Loyalists held forth to swaying crowds of hippies.


        The largest and best attended of these early psychedellic era events was the Trips Festival, held in the Garden Auditorium of  the Pacific National Exhibition grounds near the eastern
        boundary of the city.

Poster for the Trips Festival with drawing by Jack Wise

Listen to
Psychedelic, a piece played by the Al Neil Trio at the Trips Festival

        The Trips Festival was organized by Linda Crane, Ken Ryan, the late Doug Hawthorn, and Sam Perry and  a co-founder of WECO. Inside this huge auditorium were 100 rear
        projection screens for everthing from old
Chaplin films to abstract 16mm film loops and everything else from liquid overhead projectors to magic lantern slides from the turn of the century.

        The Al Neil Trio opened for Janis Joplin and Big Brother and the Holding Company and other acts including the Grateful Dead, Quicksilver Messenger Sevice, the
        Daily Flash,
poet Michael McClure
and other Seattle and Bay area acts. This was before these groups achieved any national prominence and were  basically still underground  Bay area
        groups. Topping everything off the Motion Studio played host to the already
legendary Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters with their soon-to-be legendary bus.
        Vancouver was into
the 60's full tilt.

        In the fall of 1966 after the long hot summer of the Trips Festival, we had the space at 1236 Seymour almost rennovated and ready to open. The weekend before the official opening
        there was a jam session with the
Al Neil Trio plus tenor sax player, Glenn MacDonald, a talented musician who had worked with Neil at the Cellar in the early 60's. In the middle of one
        tune, probably a bebop standard which is what Glenn favoured,
  I looked up from the drums at one point to see to my amazement a ring of overcoated, fedora-wearing figures all about 6' 4"
        and very mean looking surrounding the bandstand. They looked like the cops in a 1940's detective B-movie.

        This was none other than the Vancouver Police Drug Squad led by the inimitable Abe Snedenko, who had harassed both Neil and MacDonald throughout the years. I just lowered my
        head and kept playing. It turned
out that a certain well known rock promoter was stopped earlier in the evening and when asked where he was going with all the LSD, he said: "Motion Studio"
        and there we were playing our private opening party for a
handful of friends. No one actually was arrested, but some people, anyone faintly odd looking, were taken upstairs and searched. 
        The next weekend, the official opening, went smoothly and our old audiences from
4th Ave. made the trek to the new home of multi-media in Vancouver.

        The Motion Studio itself was a rabbit warren of rooms, somewhat dimly lit, but generally spacious compared to the 4th Ave. Sound Gallery. The entrance room I made into a small gallery
        where I displayed the work I was
doing at the Vancouver School of Art. These were boxes hung on the wall with back lit mandala patterns, modest hommages to the more sophisticated
        electric sculptures made by Vancouver artist, Audrey Doray. The most popular LP we played around the studio at the time was the Beatles Revolver.

        The next series of rooms were offices and shops largely devoted to sound and light equipment with experiments
going on continually under the resident electronic experts, Ken Ryan
        and Al  Hewitt. Following through to the
back the visitor came upon the main performance area which was a large hall, about 30' x 60'  with a high ceiling. Suspended from the ceiling
        was the famous cage built for composer Gerry Walker made of L-shaped grey industrial
metal. It became both the control for the sound system which was an early version of quadrophonic
        surround sound, a perfect vehicle for
Walker's tape compositions.

        The sound was manipulated around the speakers and the room via a joy stick similar to an airplane control stick. It was reported by Ken Ryan that this system knocked him over when he
        walked through  the convergent point
where the sound from the four speakers crossed during a light show at the Kits Theatre in 1967. The cage looked like something from an old
        sci-fi movie but was in effect a floating command module for the tape
s and the sound system.

        Another innovative development from WECO was the 3 storied projection tower that was built to house the array of projectors which were utilized in the weekend performances by the
        Al Neil Trio, Gerry Walker and the
WECO Dancers.  Contolling the battery of projectors  on the tower was a keyboard made from photo cells stuck in a strip of foam.  When the fingers
        of the 'player' lifted up, a rheostat brought on the projector. A resulting
kaleidoscope of projections shot forth hitting the turning mirror strips interspersed with strobe flashes. The effect
        was totally kaleidoscopic.

        The incredibly dense montage of imagery emanating from this battery included Sam Perry's 16mm films, many with imagery suggesting Tantric or Hindu deities, old campy magic lantern
        slides, Himalayan  mountain footage,
all tied together by the liquid projections and film loops. Sam Perry's films have mostly been lost or are otherwise untraceable, although there is some
        footage shown at the Trips Festival which has been preserved by film maker Stan Fox.

        Two other special effects were debuted that fall, one being the first strobe light in Vancouver. One of the first experiments involved WECO associate Gordon Bell with red, flowing beard
        and shoulder length hair performing with a skipping
rope under a fast  strobe. It was definitely hallucinatory but in an innocent and experimental way sense. Then there were the lengths of
        mirror hung by wires from the ceiling which turned and caught the light from the projectors
spinning fragmented shards of images around the room  The psychedelic trance for one couple
        was momentarily
broken one evening when a length of mirror crashed down beside them, luckily with no ill effects.

        Weekend evening performances continued through  the fall of 1966, until the tragic suicide of Sam Perry which ended the existence of WECO and Helen Goodwin eventually renamed her
        dance troupe TheCo. Aside from
the regular appearances of the Al Neil Trio the only other event involving music was the evening given by poet Gerry Gilbert, reading from Phone Book,
        with the late Martin Bartlett's music for Seven Distances.
This collaboration in many ways pre-figured the type of work which Bartlett and others would carry on at the Western Front
        seven years later.

Poster for Seven Distances and Phone Book  at Motion Studio,
a concert with Martin Bartlett and Gerry Gilbert

The Formation of the Intermedia Society

        On one particularly great evening that fall saw a distinguished member in the audience from the Canada Council. This was David Silcox who was in Vancouver to have a look at funding
        a multi-media collective. The obvious
success of the Motion Studio and Sound Gallery which consistenly brought out large audiences offered unqualified proof of the interest in multi- media
        performance. Subsequently, several  meetings were held
which determined the eventual creation of Intermedia.

        Over the next few months , after we abandoned the Motion Studio, the Al Neil Trio, which had launched the original Sound Gallery evenings and steadily drew in the crowds, continued
        to rehearse and perform locally, notably at
  Simon Fraser University and the University of B.C. Likewise Helen Goodwin’s THECO dancers kept together and perfected their particular approach.
        Visual artists like Gary Lee Nova  and Dallas Selman who had worked
with Sam Perry forged ahead with new paintings and sculptural projects which would come to full fruition in 1968 and
        1969 with the Intermedia Nights at the Vancouver Art Gallery.

       There was a feeling of expectancy in the air as if we hadn't quite seen the total fulfillment of the promise of  multi-media. When many of the artists from the Sound Gallery and Motion Studio
       attended a meeting in early
1967 at the building at 575 Beatty Street we were now looking at a co-operative venture with more secure underwriting than we had previously. 
       Personally I have always felt that perhaps the original, experimental energy
was going to suffer under an institutional format, yet there wasn't much choice except to participate in the new venture
       rather than lose a connection to something we had helped to start.

        Two groups had been meeting to help create the entity which became the Intermedia Society. One was centred around Victor and Audrey Doray 's circle which contained one of
        Sam Perry's colleagues, David Orcutt,
a pioneer in holistic theatre and puppetry.  A second set of meetings at Jack and Doris Shadbolt's were held which also involved UBC's
       Archie MacKinnon
. Board members at various times also included architects
Arthur Erickson, Archie MacKinnon and Bruno Freschi.

        The name Intermedia was arrived most likely at the suggestion of its first director, the late Joseph Kyle. Kyle, also an accomplished hard-edge abstract painter, was then a devoted
        follower of Canadian media guru, Marshall
McLuhan. The promise of an new erawhere artists would combine art with technology was being made and the multi-media performers of the
        Motion Studio working with the most advanced visual artists in Vancouver at the
time were the logical ones to carry out the program.

        With painter Jack Shadbolt as the head of the Board, the Intermedia Society was formally constituted and dedicated to forging new links between art and technology. Canada Council
        support became available and
the four story building on Beatty Street,  Intermedia's first home was leased.  It was another rambling, but more solid old building than past venues, with plenty
        of room for studios and rehearsal spaces including large open
performance areas.

        Film editing was located on the ground floor with open spaces for performance on the second. The third floor included the Al Neil Trio's studio and blewointment press run by poet and
        visual artist bill bissett.The top
floor contained more technical and fabrication spaces including tape recording and editing rooms. The truly interesting thing about this interface between art
        and technology is that, by today's standards, there was
hardly any technology available. Beyond a few cheap tape recorders, a 16mm film editor and some other very rudimentary equipment
        there was not a lot to build a technological art experiment on.  What Intermedia really represented
was collaboration between like minded artists and performers, just as it had been at the
        Sound Gallery and
Motion Studio.

        The year 1967 was a watershed for the future of Vancouver art. Intermedia was about to begin.

        -Gregg Simpson, 2014

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